CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED PATENT APPLICATIONS
This patent application is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 16/165,802 filed on Oct. 19, 2018, which is continuation in part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 15/616,698, filed on Jun. 7, 2017 (issued Nov. 17, 2020, as U.S. Pat. No. 10,835,450), which claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 62/441,096, filed on Dec. 30, 2016, the disclosures of which are hereby incorporated by reference. This patent application also claims priority directly to U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62/575,405, filed on Oct. 21, 2017, the disclosure of which is also hereby incorporated by reference.
In certain types of medical emergencies a patient's heart stops working, which stops the blood from flowing. Without the blood flowing, organs like the brain will start becoming damaged, and the patient will soon die. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) can forestall these risks. CPR includes performing repeated chest compressions to the chest of the patient, so as to cause the patient's blood to circulate some. CPR also includes delivering rescue breaths to the patient, so as to create air circulation in the lungs.
CPR is intended to merely forestall organ damage and death, until a more definitive treatment is made available. Defibrillation is one such definitive treatment: it is an electric shock delivered deliberately to the patient's heart, in the hope of restoring the heart rhythm.
Traditionally, CPR has been performed manually. A number of people have been trained in CPR, including some who are not in the medical professions, just in case they are bystanders in a medical emergency event.
Guidelines by medical experts such as the American Heart Association provide parameters for CPR to cause the blood to circulate effectively. The parameters are for aspects such as the frequency of the chest compressions, the depth that they should reach, and the full release that is to follow each of them. If the patient is an adult, the depth is sometimes required to reach or exceed 5 cm (2 in.). The parameters for CPR may also include instructions for the rescue breaths.
International guidelines for performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) recommend chest compressions that are consistent and repetitive in duty cycle, depth, and rate, among other characteristics. Furthermore, recommendations for hand placement during CPR are not more specific than pushing in the center of the chest at the sternum. This is, presumably, to press on the heart, or “pump,” that generates blood flow.
The repeated chest compressions of CPR are actually compressions alternating with releases. The compressions cause the chest to be compressed from its original shape. During the releases the chest is decompressing, which means that the chest is undergoing the process of returning to its original shape. This decompressing does not happen immediately upon a quick release. In fact, full decompression might not be attained by the time the next compression is performed.
Manual CPR may be ineffective, however. Indeed, the rescuer might not be able to recall their training, especially under the stress of the moment. And even the best trained rescuer can become fatigued from performing chest compressions for a long time, at which point their performance may become degraded. In the end, chest compressions that are not frequent enough, not deep enough, or not followed by full releases may fail to maintain the blood circulation required to forestall organ damage and death.
The risk of ineffective chest compressions has been addressed with CPR chest compression machines. Such machines have been known by a number of names, for example CPR chest compression machines, CPR machines, mechanical CPR devices, cardiac compressors, CPR devices, CPR systems, and so on.
CPR chest compression machines typically hold the patient supine, which means lying on his or her back. Such machines then repeatedly compress and release the chest of the patient. In fact, they can be programmed to automatically follow the guidelines, by compressing and releasing at the recommended rate or frequency, while reaching a specific depth.
Another challenge is that the chest may start collapsing due to the repeated compressions, which means that it might not fully return to its original height, even if it were given ample opportunity to do so. In such instances, the lungs might not be able to receive enough air without the rescue breaths of a ventilator.
Some CPR chest compression machines compress the chest by a piston. Some may even have a suction cup at the end of the piston. Some CPR chest compression machines including a suction cup may lift the chest at least during the releases. This lifting may actively assist the chest, in decompressing the chest faster than the chest would accomplish by itself. This type of lifting is sometimes called active decompression, and may improve air circulation in the patient, especially when the chest could be collapsing due to the repeated compressions.
Some CPR chest compression machines work so reliably that the rescuer tending to the patient may neglect to occasionally check the patient. Rescuers at an emergency scene may be understandably preoccupied with other tasks, and not notice that the patient needs additional attention, or that a condition of the patient may have changed.
The present description gives instances of CPR chest compression systems, storage media that store programs and methods, the use of which may help overcome problems and limitations of the prior art.
In embodiments, a CPR chest compression system includes a retention structure that can retain the patient's body, and a compression mechanism that can perform automatically CPR compressions to the patient's chest, alternating with releases of the CPR compressions. The compression mechanism can pause the performing of the CPR compressions for a short time, so that an attendant can check the patient. The CPR system also includes a user interface that can output a human-perceptible check patient prompt, to alert the attendant to check the patient during the pause. An advantage can be when the attendant checks in situations where the condition of the patient might have changed, and an adjustment is needed. Or in situations where the patient may have improved enough to where the compressions are no longer needed.
In embodiments, a CPR chest compression system is capable of operation that can be paused temporarily by a rescuer. Such a CPR system may include a retention structure that can retain the patient's body, and a compression mechanism that can perform automatically CPR compressions to the patient's chest, alternating with releases of the CPR compressions. The CPR system may also include a user interface with a pause means that the rescuer can actuate. When the rescuer does this, the compression mechanism can pause the performing of the CPR compressions for a short time, so that the attendant can check the patient. An advantage can be when the attendant checks in situations where the condition of the patient might have changed, and an adjustment is needed. Or in situations where the patient may have improved enough to where the compressions are no longer needed.
In embodiments, a CPR chest compression system can warn the rescuer upon restarting from a pause. Such a CPR system may include a retention structure that can retain the patient's body, and a compression mechanism that can perform automatically CPR compressions to the patient's chest, alternating with releases of the CPR compressions. The compression mechanism can pause the performing of the CPR compressions for a short time, so that the attendant can check the patient. The CPR system may also include a user interface with an output device that outputs a human-perceptible restart warning to the rescuer, in connection with the end of the pause time duration. An advantage can be that the rescuer can handle the patient more safely.
These and other features and advantages of the claimed invention will become more readily apparent in view of the embodiments described and illustrated in the present disclosure, namely from the present written specification and the drawings.
As has been mentioned, the present description is about Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) systems that are usable by a rescuer to care for a patient, and related processors and methods. A conventional such system is now described with reference to
A CPR system 100 includes components that form a retention structure. These components include a central member 141, a first leg 121, a second leg 122 and a back plate 110. Central member 141 is coupled with first leg 121 and with second leg 122 via joints 181, 182 respectively. In fact, first leg 121 and second leg 122 can be partly rotated around joints 181, 182 with respect to central member 141. This rotation can help minimize the overall volume of CPR system 100, for easier storage at times when it is not used. In addition, the far ends of legs 121, 122 can become coupled with edges 131, 132 of back plate 110.
These couplings form the retention structure that retains the patient. In this particular case, central member 141, first leg 121, second leg 122 and back plate 110 form a closed loop, in which the patient is retained. For storage, back plate 110 can be uncoupled from legs 121, 121, which in turn can be further rotated so that their edges are brought closer to each other.
Central member 141 includes a battery that stores energy, a motor that receives the energy from the battery, and a compression mechanism that can be driven by the motor. The compression mechanism is driven up and down by the motor using a rack and pinion gear. The compression mechanism includes a piston 148 that emerges from central member 141, and can compress and release the patient's chest. Piston 148 is sometimes called a plunger. Here, piston 148 terminates in a suction cup 199. In this case the battery, the motor and the rack and pinion gear are not shown, because they are completely within a housing of central member 141.
Embodiments are now described in more detail.
More particularly, the components of diagram 402 include an abstracted retention structure 440 of a CPR chest compression machine. The rescuer places patient 482 supine within retention structure 440, and thus retention structure 440 retains the body of patient 482. While retention structure 440 typically reaches the chest and the back of patient 482, it often does not reach the head 483.
The components of diagram 402 also include a compression mechanism 448, which can be attached to retention structure 440. Compression mechanism 448 can be configured to perform CPR compressions to the chest of patient 482, and then releases after the CPR compressions.
The components of diagram 402 also include a driver 441. Driver 441 can be configured to control compression mechanism 448 automatically. This controlling may be such that the compression mechanism performs, while the body is thus retained in retention structure 440, automatically CPR compressions to the chest alternating with releases of the CPR compressions. The CPR compressions can be applied downwards, and cause the chest to become compressed by at least 2 cm from its initial resting height, and often deeper, consistently with the CPR Guidelines.
The combination of retention structure 440, compression mechanism 448 and driver 441 is often called a CPR machine, and may be implemented in a number of ways. For example, three such ways were described in
The components of diagram 402 may further include a controller 410. Driver 441 may be controlled by controller 410, and/or be considered to include controller 410, according to embodiments.
Controller 410 may include a processor 420. Processor 420 can be implemented in a number of ways, such as with one or more microprocessors, general purpose processors, microcontrollers, digital signal processors (DSPs), application specific integration circuits (ASICs), programmable logic circuits, programmable logic devices, etc. While specific uses are described for processor 420, it will be understood that processor 420 can either be standalone for these specific uses, or also perform other acts, operations or process steps.
Controller 410 may also include devices like a counter CTR 425 that is configured to count events, and a time keeping mechanism CLK 426 that is configured to keep time. These may be stand-alone devices, or implemented as functionalities of processor 420, or both.
In some embodiments controller 410 additionally includes a memory 430 coupled with processor 420. Memory 430 can be implemented by one or more memory chips, volatile memories, non-volatile memories (NVM), read only memories (ROM), random access memories (RAM), magnetic disk storage media, optical storage media, smart cards, flash memory devices, etc. Memory 430 can be thus a non-transitory storage medium that stores programs 432, which contain instructions for machines. Programs 432 can be configured to be read by processor 420, and be executed upon reading. Executing is performed by physical manipulations of physical quantities, and may result in functions, processes, actions, operations and/or methods to be performed, and/or processor 420 to cause other devices or components to perform such functions, processes, actions, operations and/or methods. Often, for the sake of convenience only, it is preferred to implement and describe a program as various interconnected distinct software modules or features, individually and collectively also known as software. This is not necessary, however, and there may be cases where modules are equivalently aggregated into a single program. In some instances, software is combined with hardware in a mix called firmware.
While one or more specific uses are described for memory 430, it will be understood that memory 430 can further hold data 434, such as event data, patient data, data of the CPR machine, and so on. For example, data gathered according to embodiments could be aggregated in a database over a period of months or years, and be used later to search for evidence that one pattern of CPR is more effective (in terms of a criterion) over others, of course correlating with the patient. Data could be de-identified so as to protect the patient's privacy. If so, then what is learned could be used to adapt the devices to employ the more effective pattern either continuously or at least as one of their operating modes. Data 434 can include a value 436 for a check time duration, and a value 438 for a pause time duration, the use of which will be understood later in this document.
Controller 410 may further include a communication module 429. Communication module 429 may transmit data 434 to a post-processing module 496. Alternately, data 434 may also be transferred via removable storage such as a flash drive. Post-processing module 496 may be part of a medical system network in the cloud, a server such as in the LIFENET® system, etc. While in module 496, data 434 can be used in post-event analysis. Such analysis may reveal how the CPR machine was used, whether it was used properly, and to find ways to improve future sessions, etc.
Communication module 429 may further communicate with an other device 495. Other device 495 can be a defibrillator, a monitor, a monitor-defibrillator, a ventilator, a capnography device, or any other medical device. Communication between communication module 429 and other device 495 could be direct, or relayed through a tablet or a monitor-defibrillator. Therapy from other device 495, such as ventilation or defibrillation shocks, can be coordinated and/or synchronized with the operation of the CPR machine. For example, compression mechanism 448 may pause the compressions for delivery of a defibrillation shock, afterwards detection of ECG, and the decision of whether its operation needs to be restarted. For instance, if the defibrillation shock has been successful, then operation of the CPR machine might not need to be restarted. Examples are also given in U.S. Pat. No. 7,308,304, which is hereby incorporated by reference.
The components also include a user interface 414. User interface 414 may be physically coupled or communicatively coupled with controller 410 via communication module 429. If communicatively coupled, this would mean that devices, features and implementations of user interface 414 could be provided, for example, in a smartphone or tablet computer or other device that is communicatively coupled with controller 410. This coupling can be by wire or wireless. Any of these wireless communications may be implemented by Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, cellular, near field communications, etc.
User interface 414 may be used for receiving user instructions and settings from the rescuer or medical director, for outputting data, for alerting the rescuer, etc. Accordingly, user interface 414 may include one or more devices such as a keyboard, a speaker 415, a screen or touchscreen 416, a microphone, a dial, a knob, a switch, etc. Of those, output devices can be those that emit or output, for the rescuer, human-perceptible indications such as sounds, lights, images, tactile outputs, and so on.
Controller 410 can be configured to control driver 441 according to embodiments. Controlling is indicated by arrow 418, and can be implemented by wired or wireless signals and so on. Accordingly, compressions can be performed on the chest of patient 482 as controlled by controller 410.
In some embodiments, controller 410 adjusts its operation by receiving inputs about the patient. For example, a force sensor 454 can be configured to detect a force/motion relationship of the CPR compressions. Force sensor 454 can be further configured to output a force signal 464, which is indicative of a dynamic value of the force/motion relationship.
For another example, one or more parameter sensors 451 can be configured to detect a physiological parameter about the patient, and to output a parameter sensor signal 461 that is indicative of a dynamic value of the parameter. Such physiological parameters of the patient may include, for example, airway CO2 partial pressure, ventilation measured as end tidal CO2, signals indicating Return Of Spontaneous Circulation (ROSC) detection, pulse oximetry, blood pressure, arterial systolic blood pressure (ASBP), blood oxygen saturation (SpO2), temperature, detection of pulse, etc.
Controller 410 may be implemented together with retention structure 440, in a single CPR chest compression machine. In such embodiments, the passing of one or more of signals 461, 464 and those of arrow 418 can be advantageously internal to such a CPR chest compression machine. Alternately, controller 410 may be hosted by a different machine, which communicates with communication module 429, etc.
As such, the CPR compressions can be performed in certain sequences according to embodiments. Some sample sequences are now described, while the invention may be practiced also by additional sequences.
Diagram 408 is a time diagram of CPR compressions and releases 444 along a time axis. The CPR compressions and releases 444 are shown along a vertical axis as changes in elevation. Each CPR compression is depicted as a stroke in the downward direction—given that the patient is supine—and each corresponding release is depicted as an upwards stroke. This is a direct representation for embodiments that use a plunger, and still an apt one for embodiments that use a belt. While diagram 408 thus uses the vertical negative semi-axis for the elevation, the positive semi-axis is not used this way. This is not limiting for other drawings, however, as will be seen later in this document.
In diagram 408, the strokes thus begin from the time axis and end at the time axis. The time axis is thus considered the “zero” height or reference level. That zero height could be the chest resting height, at least in the beginning of the session.
The downward strokes reach depths that can compress the patient chest. In diagram 408 all strokes are shown to reach the same depth, but that is only for simplicity—in fact the depths could be different among the strokes. In embodiments, most of the CPR compressions cause the chest to become compressed by at least 2 cm from its initial resting height, and deeper as mentioned above.
Diagram 408 depicts a certain sequence 470 of the CPR compressions according to embodiments. Sequence 470 can be part of a single resuscitation event for patient 482.
Sequence 470 includes a first group 471 of the CPR compressions. Only some of the compressions of first group 471 are shown. It will be observed that, within first group 471, the CPR compressions and releases 444 are shown occurring at regular time intervals, which would mean that they have a single frequency. This is only for purposes of illustration, however, and the time intervals could be irregular. Moreover, there are very short inter-stroke pauses between a release and the successive compression of a group, which are of course different from the pauses described elsewhere in this document.
First group 471 includes at least 120 of the CPR compressions. The person skilled in the art will recognize that, even if the compressions are performed at the rate of 80 cpm with no interruptions, 120 of the CPR compressions of first group 471 will require 1.5 min to be performed. “cpm” stands for compressions per minute; instead of “cpm”, sometimes in the industry the term “bpm” is used for the equivalent beats per minute of the heart that the CPR machine effectuates. At the higher rate of 100 cpm, the same number of compressions may require somewhat less time. In embodiments, first group 471 may include more compressions, and/or last longer, for example a few minutes such as 2 to 4 min.
After first group 471, sequence 470 may include a check pause 491 from the CPR compressions. Check pause 491 is a pause during which the rescuer is expected to check the patient. Check pause 491 is a portion of sequence 470 that lasts at least 5 sec or maybe longer, such as 10-20 sec.
During check pause 491, the chest does not become compressed as during first group 471. In fact, in embodiments, during check pause 491 the CPR machine does not move at all, so as to instill confidence in the rescuer that it is safe to examine patient 482 closely without becoming caught in the CPR machine. It will be observed that, for ease of explanation, a star 491 is used in diagram 408 affirmatively as an icon to denote a pause, which could amount to even complete motionlessness by the CPR machine. Check pause 491 has an end when considered as an event, which means that at some time check pause 491 comes to an end, elapses.
In some embodiments, check pause 491 starts when the compression mechanism has completed a release. These are also the embodiments shown in
Diagram 502 shows a retention structure 540 that retains a patient 582. A driver 541 controls a compression mechanism that includes a plunger 548. In this embodiment, plunger 548 does not have a suction cup at the end, although it could.
A specific point 543 of plunger 548 is also indicated. Specific point 543 can be chosen anywhere on plunger 548; and it is arbitrarily chosen to be at the lowest point of plunger 548, so that its time trajectory will match the compression depth during the compressions and releases.
Diagram 508 is a time diagram that shows the depths of CPR compressions and releases 544. After a first group 571, a first check pause 591 starts. Given the above, diagram 508 also shows a time diagram of the elevation of specific point 543, during first group 571. As such, specific point 543 starts the compressions from a first elevation, namely zero.
During check pause 591, however, plunger 548 is lifted higher than the chest resting height, and therefore specific point 543 is automatically lifted by a distance H from the first elevation, or from the resting height of the patient's chest. This distance H can be at least 3 cm, or even a complete retraction of plunger 548 to its off position.
In some embodiments, a CPR system may further remind the rescuer to check patient 482, during such check pauses. Examples are now described.
In some embodiments, user interface 414 can be configured to output one or more human-perceptible check patient prompts CP 421, CP 422. These check patient prompts are shown in
In embodiments, check patient prompts CP 421, CP 422 are output responsive to a check patient condition becoming met. A check patient condition can be defined in a number of ways, and a number of examples are now given.
For a first example, a check patient condition can include that a threshold number of the CPR compressions have been performed in a group, for example since a previous pause that concluded that lasted at least 3 sec, or 4 sec, etc. That threshold number could be at least 120. In the example of
Referring now to
In this second example, time can be kept by time keeping mechanism CLK 426 for the second group 672 of the CPR compressions. And, the patient check condition can become met when the kept time exceeds a check time duration, which is shown as a duration CTD 636 in
The check time duration is, therefore, a frequency by which a rescuer is reminded, by the check patient prompt, to check the patient. In some embodiments, the value of the check time duration can be adjusted. As was seen in
In some embodiments, communication module 429 is configured to receive a remote check time duration input. The stored value CTD 436 for the check time duration can then become adjusted responsive to the received remote check time duration input.
Referring now to
Referring now to
As things are, a check time duration CTD 836 ends at time T84. This, however, is not necessarily the time that the CPR compressions restart in the form of second group 872. In fact, in this example a check patient prompt CP 822 is output long before time T84, namely at a substantially earlier time T87, as a result of a change in the patient condition. This means that a number of the CPR compressions in second group 872 will not have been performed yet; and, if the rescuer reacts timely by pausing the CPR system, they may not be performed at all. Check patient prompt CP 822 can be thus output earlier in a number of ways.
In some embodiments, check patient condition 861 includes that a pause instruction has been received from other device 495. Indeed, communication module 429 can be configured to receive such a pause instruction from other device 495. Of course, such a pause instruction can be synchronized with what other device 495 will attempt to do.
There are a number of possibilities for generating such a pause instruction. For example, other device 495 can be a ventilator that needs to deliver large sustained breaths to recruit or re-inflate collapsed alveoli. Then the pause instruction can be repeated 5 minutes after alveoli recruitment, for a repeat of that recruitment maneuver. Or, the same effort could be done with individual positive pressure breaths, although the frequency of these would need to be limited, so as to avoid pausing the compressions too much.
For another example, other device 495 can be an ultrasound machine that generates such a pause instruction, so that it can perform ultrasound imaging. This could be used for example to facilitate imaging of the heart to see if there is heart wall motion, which may indicate the potential of the heart to pump blood, without introducing a long pause in compressions.
For one more example, other device 495 can be a defibrillator that might instruct to pause the compressions so that it will defibrillate, and allow enough time for recovery to be detected. For example, a monitor/defibrillator could perform a computer analysis of the ECG, and the pause could be just long enough to complete the analysis.
At the very least, it may be desired to avoid having a compression immediately (e.g. within the first 1 or 2 seconds) after the shock that might mechanically stimulate the heart. This would be so as to prevent the compressions from interfering with the post-shock electrical activation patterns of a shock that was going to terminate VF.
In response to a pause instruction, a compression mechanism that includes a plunger pauses after completing its current upstroke (if the shock occurs during an up-stroke), or aborts an in-progress down-stroke (and resets to the max upstroke position for resumption of compressions after the pause). The pause duration for these shock-associated pauses could be, for example, in the range of 1-3 seconds, or alternately could involve skipping 1-3 compressions that would have been delivered, while maintaining the overall compression cadence. Or, a longer check patient pause may be allowed, for the rescuer to check manually for rhythm.
The pause instruction may further encode a pause time duration, and the check pause may last as specified by the encoded pause time duration. The encoded pause time duration may be a suggested minimum time for an impending operation by other device 495, or for a check due to something sensed by other device 495, and so on. The encoded pause time duration may further include a not-to-exceed value for resuming the CPR compressions, and so on. Moreover, a periodicity maybe communicated by other device 495, as to how often the pauses should occur, and so on. In addition, a pause instruction may be followed with instructions about shortening the pause or extending the pause, as described elsewhere in this document.
In some embodiments, check patient condition 861 includes that a stoppage criterion, also known as stopping criterion, becomes met by the dynamic value of the parameter indicated in parameter sensor signal 461. That, even if the threshold number of the CPR compressions in second group 872 has not been performed yet, which may equivalently mean that the check time duration CTD 836 has not passed yet. The stoppage criterion can be that the patient's vital signs can exhibit a risk, for example as detected by sensors 451, 454, etc. In some of these embodiments, the parameter of patient 482 is detected while second group 872 of the CPR compressions is being performed. Examples are given in pending U.S. patent application Ser. No. 14/942,835, filed on Nov. 16, 2015, and published as document No. US 20160067140 on Mar. 10, 2016, and which is hereby incorporated by reference. Or, the pause may happen by another machine to check. Additional examples are given below.
In some embodiments, the parameter of the patient includes an Electrocardiogram (ECG). Sensing of the ECG could be facilitated or enhanced by use of a filtering algorithm to substantially reduce or eliminate the ECG artifact caused by the mechanical chest compressions. In such embodiments, the stoppage criterion can become met if a dynamic value of the ECG includes a QRS complex. Or that an aspect of a QRS morphology narrows by more than a certain amount within a time period. Or, the stoppage criterion can become met if a dynamic value of the ECG indicates that a patient rhythm has changed from non-shockable to shockable, for example Ventricular Fibrillation. Or, the stoppage criterion can become met if a dynamic value of a heart rate measured from the ECG increases by more than a certain amount within a time period. Or, the stoppage criterion can become met if a dynamic value of the ECG that is synchronous with a dynamic value of the impedance fluctuates.
In some of these embodiments, the check patient condition includes that a stoppage criterion becomes met by the dynamic value after the second group of the CPR compressions has been performed uninterrupted for at least 1 min, and preferably longer than the check time duration or 2 min. In this manner, this functionality does not ever interfere with a usual resuscitation pattern of checking periodically; rather it could activate its “protection against prolonged un-recognition of ROSC” only when the CPR system has been performing uninterrupted compressions for a more prolonged interval.
In some embodiments, the parameter of the patient includes an airway CO2 partial pressure. In such embodiments, the stoppage criterion may become met if a dynamic value of the airway CO2 partial pressure exceeds a threshold, for example 50 mmHg.
In some embodiments, the parameter of the patient includes an airway end-tidal CO2. In such embodiments, the stoppage criterion may become met if a dynamic value of the airway end-tidal CO2 increases by more than a certain amount within a time period, for example if it increases by more than 20 mmHg within 1 min.
In some embodiments, the parameter of the patient includes a blood pressure. In such embodiments, the stoppage criterion may become met if a dynamic value of the blood pressure reaches a threshold. If there is any appreciable blood pressure during the time when compressions are paused, a check for return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) would be indicated. Accordingly, when using a pressure sensor in an artery, a diastolic pressure above even 20 mmHg would be a sign of circulation, and a systolic of 30 or 40 mmHg would similarly indicate likely ROSC. And, even with a less high quality way of reading blood pressure, essentially any indication of blood pressures above 30 mmHg may indicate ROSC.
In some embodiments, the parameter of the patient includes a regional oxygen saturation. In such embodiments, the stoppage criterion may become met if a dynamic value of the regional oxygen saturation reaches a threshold. Regional oxygen saturation (“rSO2”) can be a percentage saturation of hemoglobin with oxygen, in tissue of the patient that is being monitored. For example, a cerebral oximeter can be applied to the patient's forehead, when the tissue of interest can be accordingly the part of the brain just under the skull. The reading of a cerebral oximeter may be expressed as percentage. That reading may be 70% or higher for a person with good blood flow to their brains, while it may be 30% for a patient in cardiac arrest.
It should be remembered that, unlike with pulse oximeters, cerebral oximeters are making a slower, steady-state measurement of (loosely) the color of the tissue, and do not require pulsatile blood flow to get a reading. The cerebral hemoglobin oxygen saturation is considered to be a measure of the balance between the supply and demand for oxygen in the tissue monitored.
In some embodiments, the retention structure includes one or more straps configured to be used by the rescuer to restrain a motion of the patient's body. For example, straps can be used to secure the patients arms “out of the way”. Straps can also be used for the legs, if the patient is on a gurney, and a team of rescuers have to descend stairs, etc. These can be useful when moving the patient through doorways, while the CPR machine is strapped on the patient. If the patient were to regain consciousness and be unhappy about the chest compressions, they could try to pull their hands and arms out of the straps. In addition, the retention structure may include a force sensor configured to detect a change in the force applied to the strap. The force sensor can use, for example, a spring to detect tension, and be coupled in series with the strap. In such embodiments, the stoppage criterion becomes met if a detected change in the force applied to the strap reaches a threshold.
An example is shown in
In some embodiments, the parameter sensor includes a defibrillation detector. Such can be, for example, as described in patent application US 20170021182 A1, which is hereby incorporated by reference. Or, an electrical device that already has a coil could be adapted accordingly. In such embodiments, the stoppage criterion may become met if a defibrillation was detected by the defibrillation detector. In such embodiments, a custom pause time duration could be further specified. A benefit of this approach is that it could allow close coordination of timing of re-initiation of chest compressions after the shock, without the need to have the chest compression machine and monitor-defibrillator in communication. So, for example, the chest compression machine and defibrillator could be made by different (and non-cooperating) manufacturers.
In some embodiments, the check patient condition 861 includes that a change in the force/motion relationship that is detected by force sensor 454 is above a threshold. Such a change could be, for example, due to a voluntary muscle contraction in the thorax, or indicative of a rib/sternum fracture, meriting attention from the rescuer. As per the above, a dynamic value of the force/motion relationship can be indicated by force signal 464. Again, that can happen even if the threshold number of the CPR compressions in second group 872 has not been performed yet, which may equivalently mean that the check time duration CTD 836 has not passed yet.
In some embodiments, the CPR system further includes a sound sensor 428, which can be configured to detect a sound of the patient. Sound sensor 428 is shown in
In some embodiments, the CPR system further includes ways of detecting strain in straps holding the patient's torso, arms, etc., especially while the patient's chest is not being compressed. Change in the strain, especially while the patient's chest is not compressed, may indicate motion by the patient, which in turn may indicate restoration of some degree of consciousness. Again, such would merit attention from the rescuer. In such embodiments, the check patient condition could include that such a change in the strain is identified as patient motion.
There is a number of ways of outputting the check patient prompt. Being a human-perceptible indication, the check patient prompt can include a message spoken by speaker 415, or shown in screen 416, indicated by light sources lighting, and so on. A message spoken by speaker 415 has the advantage that it can be heard even if the rescuer is looking elsewhere at the time, possibly distracted by other tasks or evolving developments.
In such embodiments, the stoppage criterion can include other conditions. For example, the CPR system may detect that patient 482 has shifted within retention structure 440 and their position needs readjustment, and so on.
In such embodiments where a change is detected in the patient condition, the check patient prompt is preferably not the same as that of a usual reminder. Rather, it is preferred that, in such cases, the check patient prompt sounds differently, more like an alarm. The alarm maybe graduated or escalating, and can be user configurable in advance, and so on. In some embodiments, the check patient prompt includes a notification about the dynamic value of the parameter or about the stoppage criterion. In such embodiments, then, a sound or an image may indicate what the patient's change condition is.
As will be seen later in this document, in many embodiments the second group of performed CPR chest compressions ends, and is followed by a next check pause. In some of these embodiments, the check patient prompt includes a stopping count-down synchronized with a beginning of the next check pause. An example is now described.
Referring now to
There is a number of ways in which the second group of performed CPR chest compressions 972 ends, and next check pause 992 begins, after check patient prompt 921 has been output. In some embodiments, the CPR machine pauses by itself automatically as part of the certain sequence, implicitly expecting that the rescuer will attend to the patient. In other embodiments, the check patient prompt is output as a reminder, but it is completely up to the rescuer to initiate the pause. Either way, after the pause the machine may restart automatically. Examples of such ways are now described.
Second check pause 1092 can be a pause from performing the CPR compressions. In particular, second check pause 1092 may start by pausing the performing the CPR compressions, in other words ending second group 1072 at T102, in connection with second check patient prompt 1022 being output. Second check pause 1092 may last for a pause time duration PTD 1038 of at least 5 sec, i.e. until T103. Then, upon an end of second check pause 1092 at T103, performing the CPR compressions maybe restarted or re-initiated, by starting a third group 1073 of the CPR compressions.
This assumes that, during second check pause 1092, the rescuer will indeed check the patient. This need not be assumed always. In some situations, if the rescuer would not check the patient, the CPR system might as well not pause at all! Accordingly, in some embodiments, user interface 414 further includes a pause means 417 that is configured to generate a pause input upon being actuated by the rescuer. The generated pause input can help confirm that rescuer will indeed check the patient during the second check pause. In such embodiments, second check pause 1092 does not start unless the pause input is indeed thus generated. Some pause means embodiments are described in more detail later in this document. In this case, such a pause means would have to be received validly, namely only after the check patient prompt is output, etc. Such can be within the settings of the CPR system, along with settings such as “do not pause automatically”, etc.
The pause time duration is, therefore, the time interval given to the rescuer to check the patient. The pause time duration may advantageously be, for example, 5, 10, 15, or 20 sec for checking the patient. In some embodiments, its value can be adjusted. As was seen in
In some embodiments, communication module 429 is configured to receive a remote pause time duration input. The stored value PTD 438 for the pause time duration can then become adjusted responsive to the received remote pause time duration input.
Referring now to
More embodiments are possible. For example, the user interface may include a “restart from pause” means that is configured to generate a restart input responsive to being actuated by the rescuer. The restart from pause means can be the same as a start means, or distinct from it. The generated restart input may be validated, for example be considered valid only if generated during the second check pause but before the pause time duration has passed. In such embodiments, the end of the second check pause may occur responsive to the restart input being generated, instead of when the pause time duration has passed. Moreover, value 438 for the pause time duration stored in memory 430 may become adjusted responsive to how long second check pause 1092 actually lasted, i.e. based on experience of this rescuer in this scenario.
As already mentioned above, after the check patient prompt has been output, in other embodiments the check patient prompt is output as a reminder, but it is completely incumbent upon the rescuer to initiate the pause. In such embodiments, user interface 414 further includes a pause means 417, of which multiple examples are given later in this document. As already mentioned above, pause means 417 can be configured to generate a pause input responsive to being actuated by the rescuer. In these embodiments, the CPR system expects that the rescuer would actuate pause means 417 upon the rescuer perceiving check patient prompts CP 421, CP 422, CP 1022, etc. And, if none is given, the compressions might as well not pause in some instances. In some embodiments there might be no pause anyway, even if the machine has been providing uninterrupted compressions for a sufficient number of minutes to normally trigger the automatic prompt or pause of the present invention, if the ECG rhythm is detected as incompatible with ROSC (asystole, Ventricular Fibrillation (VF), very slow/very wide-complex bradycardia).
In embodiments of
In some embodiments, the restart warning includes a restart count-down that is synchronized with the end of the check pause and, therefore, with the restarting of the performance of the CPR compressions. As such, the restart count-down warns about the performance of the next group of CPR compressions beginning imminently. An example is now described.
Referring now to
Moreover, methods and algorithms are described below. These methods and algorithms are not necessarily inherently associated with any particular logic device or other apparatus. Rather, they are advantageously implemented by programs for use by a computing machine, such as a general-purpose computer, a special purpose computer, a microprocessor, etc. These algorithms are not necessarily purely mathematical, and are configured to address challenges particular to the problem solved, as will be apparent to a person skilled in the art. In embodiments, a non-transitory computer-readable storage medium stores one or more programs which, when executed by systems or devices according to embodiments, result in operations according to embodiments. Execution can be by a processor that reads the storage medium, etc.
This detailed description includes flowcharts, display images, algorithms, and symbolic representations of program operations within at least one computer readable medium. An economy is achieved in that a single set of flowcharts is used to describe both programs, and also methods. So, while flowcharts describe methods in terms of boxes, they also concurrently describe programs.
Methods are now described. These methods may be implemented or performed by embodiments described in this document.
According to another operation 1320, a first group of at least 120 CPR compressions alternating with releases to the CPR compressions is performed. This first group can be performed by the compression mechanism to a chest of the body, while the body is thus retained. Most, if not all of the CPR compressions may cause the chest to become compressed by at least 2 cm.
According to a subsequent operation 1380, a check pause from performing the CPR compressions of the first group may then be performed. During the check pause the patient's chest does not become compressed as it was during the first group.
The check pause may last at least 5 sec. For example, according to a sample operation 1385, time can be kept until a pause time duration has passed.
Then, according to another operation 1390, upon an end of the check pause, a second group of the CPR compressions may start being performed. This amounts to restarting the compressions. According to another operation 1330, this second group of the CPR compressions may continue being performed.
According to another operation 1340, it can be determined whether or not a check patient condition has become met. The check patient condition can be as described above.
According to another operation 1350, a human-perceptible check patient prompt may be output by the user interface, responsive to the check patient condition becoming met at operation 1340. The check patient prompt may be as described elsewhere in the document.
A number of the previously described embodiments may further be applicable. For example, the compression mechanism may include a plunger. During operation 1320, a specific point of the plunger may start one of the compressions from a first elevation, while during operation 1385, the specific point can be automatically lifted by at least 3 cm from the first elevation.
For another example, the CPR system may include a counter, and the patient check condition may become met when a counted number of the CPR compressions in the second group reaches the threshold number.
Or, the CPR system may include a time keeping mechanism that keeps time for the second group of the CPR compressions, and the patient check condition could become met when the kept time exceeds a check time duration. And the stored value for the check time duration may be updated as per the above.
It will be recognized that many operations of flowchart 1400 are similar to operations of flowchart 1300 that are similarly numbered. For example, operations 1410, 1420, 1440, 1450 can be similar to operations 1310, 1320, 1340, 1350, respectively. In addition, operation 1430 can apply to the second, or any subsequent group of CPR compressions.
Moreover, upon outputting the check patient prompt at operation 1450, it can be inquired according to an optional operation 1460 whether the impending and announced check pause will actually happen. For example, some timely confirmation may be expected by the user. If not received, then execution may revert to operation 1430.
As already mentioned, flowchart 1400 shows ways of performing embodiments in a continuous loop. For example, according to a subsequent operation 1480, the performing of the CPR compressions and, of course, their corresponding releases could be paused. This could be for performing a second check pause, a third check pause and so on. This pause would be from performing the CPR compressions and releases of the previous group, and may last for a pause time duration of at least 5 sec.
In addition, shortly before operation 1480, according to an optional operation 1478, a stopping count-down may be output. The stopping count-down may be synchronized with a beginning of the next check pause, i.e. of the pausing of the chest compressions of operation 1480. In some embodiments, the stopping count-down of operation 1478 is separate from the output prompt of operation 1450, for example as seen in flowchart 1400. In other embodiments the stopping count-down is part of the output prompt, as discussed above.
According to another operation 1490, a next group of the CPR compressions may restart being performed automatically, upon an end of the previous check pause. This next group may be the second group, the third, group, etc., and continue to be performed as per next operation 1430. In addition, shortly before operation 1490, according to another optional operation 1488, a human-perceptible restart warning may be output to the rescuer. The restart warning can be output in conjunction with the end of the check pause, and can be about the end of the check pause. As seen above, the restart warning may include a restart count-down synchronized with the end of the check pause.
Again, as mentioned above, the check pause of operation 1480 can be performed automatically, in connection with the check patient prompt being output, and without waiting for the rescuer to confirm it. The check pause can last for a pause time duration that can be updated, as per the above. Alternately, the user interface may further include a pause means that is configured to generate a pause input by the rescuer actuating it, which the rescuer would do upon the rescuer perceiving the check patient prompt. Then the check pause of operation 1480 can be performed responsive to the generated pause input.
Embodiments are now described where the rescuer can temporarily pause the CPR compressions. This can be accomplished in a number of ways where a CPR system includes one or more pause means that can be actuated by a rescuer. While a rescuer can often stop the CPR machine from performing compressions, pausing instead of stopping the performance of the CPR compressions may make more certain that the CPR compressions will restart after some time, without the rescuer forgetting to restart them.
User interface 1514 also includes a start means 1504. Start means 1504 can be configured to generate a start input responsive to being actuated by the rescuer. UI 1514 additionally includes a stop means 1506. Stop means 1506 can be configured to generate a stop input responsive to being actuated by the rescuer. UI 1514 further includes a pause means 1517, which can also be called a first pause means 1517. Pause means 1517 can be configured to generate a first pause input responsive to being actuated by the rescuer.
The start input, the stop input, and other inputs generated by the various pause means such as the first pause means can be internal to the CPR system. These internal inputs may be received by a processor such as processor 420, and accordingly control the compression mechanism. Controlling can be in various ways such that the CPR compressions are paused and restarted. Examples are now described.
In time diagram 1608, the compression mechanism may start performing CPR compressions responsive to the generated start input SI 1641, which is received at time T160. Some of these compressions are shown as a first group 1671.
First pause input PI 1642 is generated at time T161. Then, responsive to the generated first pause input PI 1642, the compression mechanism may pause the performing of the CPR compressions. The pausing is indicated by a check pause 1691, which lasts between times T162 and T163. This duration is also known as pause time duration 1638. Pause time duration 1638 can be at least 5 sec long, as also described elsewhere in this document. During pause time duration 1638 the chest does not become compressed the same way as it was during the first group 1671 of CPR compressions. In fact, the chest might not become compressed at all. In fact, the compression mechanism may pause moving entirely.
The end of pause time duration PTD 1638 occurs at time T163. The compression mechanism may then automatically restart the performing of the CPR compressions, upon the end of pause time duration PTD 1638. This automatic restarting is part of the check pause 1691, and might not require any other intervention by the rescuer. Thus restarting the CPR compressions is shown by a second group 1672 of CPR compressions.
In time diagram 1608, stop input TI 1643 is generated at time T164. Responsive to the generated stop input TI 1643, compression mechanism may stop the performing of the CPR compressions.
Additional embodiments are now described.
In addition, UI 1714 includes a section 1719 that has a label 1720. Label 1720 reads “CONTROL”, and suggests control of the CPR machine portion of the CPR system.
In section 1719, an ON/OFF actuator 1791 is shown by a dial. Actuator 1791 can be configured to be actuated by the rescuer so that the ON/OFF actuator can be actuated to be in one of at least an ON state and an OFF state.
In section 1719, the start means and the stop means are implemented by a single start/stop actuator 1792 in the form of a dial 1792. Actuator 1792 can be configured to be actuated by the rescuer so that rotating the dial to the START label generates the start input, while rotating the dial back to the STOP label generates the stop input. Dial 1792 remains at the position it was rotated to last.
In some embodiments, the start means and the first pause means are implemented by a start/pause actuator. This can be implemented in a number of ways. An example is now described.
In section 1819, the start means, the stop means, and a pause means are implemented by a single special actuator 1893 in the form of a special dial 1893. Actuator 1893 works the same way as dial 1792, for generating the start and the stop inputs. In addition, rotating the dial from the START position to the PAUSE position generates the pause input; however, upon the rescuer releasing dial 1893 from the PAUSE position, dial 1893 returns automatically to the START position.
In some embodiments, the first pause means includes a button, which the rescuer can actuate by pressing. This can be implemented in a number of ways. Examples are now described, which apply for embodiments where the button is physical, or shown in a touchscreen of a device.
A number of variations described elsewhere in this document may be combined with the pause means. For example, a human-perceptible indication can be output about the pausing of the performing of the CPR compressions, which can be a human-perceptible stopping count-down that is synchronized with a beginning of the pause time duration. In addition, time can be kept for the pause time duration. Plus, a value PTD 438 for the pause time duration can be stored in memory 430, and be updated as per the above. During the pause time duration, a specific point of a plunger of the compression mechanism can be automatically lifted by at least 3 cm from a reference elevation of the compressions. And, in conjunction with automatic restarting at the end of the pause time duration, a human-perceptible restart warning can be output to the rescuer. That restart warning may include a restart count-down that is synchronized with the end of the pause time duration, and so on.
In some embodiments, the user interface can have more than one pause means, for diverse functions about pausing. Examples are now described.
Embodiments can have different pause means, for causing a pause to have different scheduled pause time durations. For instance, returning to
In section 2019, there is a first pause button 2017 and a second pause button 2018, which embody first pause means 1517 and second pause means 1518 respectively. These generate a first pause input and a second pause input, responsive to being actuated by the rescuer while the CPR compressions are being performed. Responsive to the generated second pause input, the performing of the CPR compressions becomes paused for an other pause time duration, and then may become automatically restarted after an end of the other pause time duration. The other pause time duration lasts at least 30% longer than the pause time duration. In the example of
In the example of
Alternately or in addition, such buttons could be labeled with the procedure for which they are deemed acceptable (e.g. “pulse check pause”). The rationale is that unacceptably long pauses will be avoided by having pauses that automatically end at acceptable durations.
In some embodiments, the rescuer may check the patient substantially faster than the scheduled pause time duration permits. In such embodiments, the rescuer may be enabled to restart the compressions faster than would happen according to the scheduled pause time duration. Examples are now described.
As seen previously in
Accordingly, actuating restart from pause means 1577 can end the pause faster than the scheduled time. As such, the pause can have an actual time duration that is less than the pause time duration that would be scheduled by the CPR system via value PTD 438. An example of this is now described.
During pause 2191, and at time T216, a restart input RI 2146 is generated, as described above. Responsive to restart input RI 2146, the CPR compressions restart at time T215 as a second group 2172. Time T215 is earlier than the scheduled time T213, and the actual time duration of pause 2191 was between T212 and T215.
In some embodiments, the CPR system can further be a learning system as to the actual pause time durations. For example, processor 420 can be configured to adjust stored value PTD 438 for the pause time duration, based upon when the restart input was generated, and thus based on the actual duration of pause 2191. Of course, in such embodiments where the adjustment happens during an event, it is preferred that the rescuer is aware that such adjustments could be taking place, that such automatic adjustments can be disabled, and so on.
In some embodiments, the rescuer may need more time to check the patient than the scheduled pause time duration permits. In such embodiments, the rescuer may be enabled to extend the pause for a longer time than the scheduled pause time duration. Examples are now described.
As seen previously in
Extend pause means 1578 can be implemented in different ways. In some embodiments, extend pause means 1578 is distinct from the first pause means, for example as seen in button 2078 in
Accordingly, the pause can have an actual time duration that is longer than the pause time duration that would be scheduled by the CPR system via value PTD 438. An example of this is now described.
During pause 2291, and at time T227, an extend pause input EPI 2247 is generated, as described above. Responsive to extend pause input EPI 2247, pause 2291 can become prolonged by an extended pause time duration EPTD 2239. As such, the CPR compressions may restart at time T225 as a second group 2272. Time T225 is later than the scheduled time T223, and the actual time duration of pause 2291 was between T222 and T225. And, of course, the rescuer can cause another extend pause input to be generated to further extend the pause, and so on.
And, in learning system embodiments, processor 420 can be configured to adjust stored value PTD 438 for the pause time duration, based upon when the extend pause input was generated, and thus based on the actual duration of pause 2291.
Execution may begin at a step 2305. According to a next operation 2310, a body of a patient may be retained by the retention structure.
According to another operation 2320, it can be determined whether a start input was generated, responsive to the start means being actuated by the rescuer. While the answer is no, execution may return to operation 2320.
If at operation 2320 the answer becomes yes then, according to another operation 2330, CPR compressions and releases may start to be performed by the compression mechanism to a chest of the body while the body is thus retained. This would happen responsive to the start input generated at operation 2320.
According to another operation 2340, it can be determined whether a first pause input generated, responsive to the first pause means being actuated by the rescuer. While the answer is no then, according to another operation 2350, it can be determined whether a stop means was generated, responsive to the stop means being actuated by the rescuer.
While the answer in operation 2350 is no, then execution may proceed to operation 2340. If the answer at operation 2350 becomes yes then, according to another operation 2360, the performing the CPR compressions may be stopped, responsive to the stop input generated at operation 2350. Then execution may end at a next step 2370.
If the answer at operation 2340 becomes yes then, according to another operation 2380, the performing of the CPR compressions may be paused, responsive to the first pause input generated at operation 2340.
Then, according to another operation 2385, the CPR compression mechanism may wait. Waiting can be for a pause time duration, which can be shortened or extended as above. During operation 2385, the chest might not become compressed the way it started becoming compressed at operation 2330.
Then, according to another, operation 2390, the performing of the CPR compressions can be automatically restarted, upon an end of the pause time duration.
Turning again to
As shown in
After first group 571, piston 548 is returned to the reference position and first check pause 591 starts. During first check pause 591, piston 548 is retracted a distance H away from the reference position A to a retreat position C. Piston 548 is not extended to compression position B during first check pause 591. Retreat position C can be higher than the chest resting height and/or reference position A such that the patient's chest can expand to the chest's natural resting position. Retreating to retreat position C, however, does not actively decompress a patient's chest. When check pause 591 ends, piston 548 returns to reference position A and a second group of compressions (not shown in
In some embodiments, the distance H between retreat position C and reference position A can be between 0.5 cm to 1 cm. In some embodiments, the distance H between retreat position C and reference position A can be up to 6 cm. In some embodiments, the distance H between retreat position C and reference position A can be greater than 6 cm, including a complete retraction of the compression mechanism to an off position.
Retreating to retreat position C at least once during a session of administering sets of CPR chest compressions to a patient can ensure that there is no load on a patient's chest during ventilation. It can therefore facilitate the provision of rescue breaths and/or ventilations. For example, ventilation might cause the chest to rise a little, but a CPR system paused at reference position A does not accommodate for this temporary chest rise. However, retreating to retreat position C during a pause for ventilation will accommodate for the rise. It can allow an operator of a CPR system to more easily see if air is entering a patient's chest and lungs as intended prior to continuing chest compressions and to further observe if the patient starts to breath by him or herself.
Retreating to retreat position C can further allow for less visual obstruction in a catheterization laboratory during angiography or angioplasty if a compression mechanism used includes radiopaque material. Retreating to retreat position C can further permit adjustment of a compression mechanism if placement is not correct or the patient has shifted during a CPR session. Retreating to retreat position C can additionally allow for removal of clothes on the upper body if an operator initially forgot to remove clothing prior to starting the CPR session. Retreating to retreat position C can additionally allow for correcting placement of defibrillator pad(s).
Referring now to
First pause 2504 and/or second pause 2508 can be a ventilation pause. A CPR system can pause compressions during a CPR session to administer ventilations and/or for detection of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Pausing can be periodic, according to a schedule, and/or responsive to an input by an operator to a user interface. For example, controller 441 can receive a selection of a pause mode from user interface 414 and generate a pause signal. Additionally and/or alternatively, controller 441 can initiate a pause, such as a ventilation pause.
During first group of compressions and releases 2502, second group of compressions and releases 2506, and third group of compressions and releases 2510, a compression mechanism, not shown, moves from a reference position A to a compression position B and returns to reference position A at least twice successively. During first pause 2504 and second pause 2508, the compression mechanism moves to a retreat position C from reference position A. After first pause 2504 and second pause 2508 ends, the compression mechanism returns to reference position A and continues the next group of compressions and releases.
Referring now to
As shown in flow chart 2700, in some embodiments the method 2700 includes returning to step 2702 to repeat the cycle of moving to the retreat position after each return to the reference position from the compression position. Additionally and/or alternatively, as also shown in flow chart 2700, in some embodiments, the method 2700 includes performing a group of compression and releases, having no movement to a retreat position, at step 2710 and then returning to step 2702 for an additional compression and release cycle including movement to a retreat position.
Moving to retreat position C at least once during a session of administering sets of CPR chest compressions to a patient can be used in conjunction with a mechanical CPR system having any compression mechanism, including but not limited to compression mechanisms including a piston, a compression pad or other pads, a suction cup, and/or a belt. As shown in
As shown in
As noted earlier, retreating to a retreat position does not result in active decompression of a patient's chest, even if the compression mechanism includes a suction cup. As shown in
In the methods described above, each operation can be performed as an affirmative step of doing, or causing to happen, what is written that can take place. Such doing or causing to happen can be by the whole system or device, or just one or more components of it. It will be recognized that the methods and the operations may be implemented in a number of ways, including using systems, devices and implementations described above. In addition, the order of operations is not constrained to what is shown, and different orders may be possible according to different embodiments. Examples of such alternate orderings may include overlapping, interleaved, interrupted, reordered, incremental, preparatory, supplemental, simultaneous, reverse, or other variant orderings, unless context dictates otherwise. Moreover, in certain embodiments, new operations may be added, or individual operations may be modified or deleted. The added operations can be, for example, from what is mentioned while primarily describing a different system, apparatus, device or method.
A person skilled in the art will be able to practice the present invention in view of this description, which is to be taken as a whole. Details have been included to provide a thorough understanding. In other instances, well-known aspects have not been described, in order to not obscure unnecessarily this description. Plus, any reference to any prior art in this description is not, and should not be taken as, an acknowledgement or any form of suggestion that such prior art forms parts of the common general knowledge in any country or any art.
This description includes one or more examples, but this fact does not limit how the invention may be practiced. Indeed, examples, instances, versions or embodiments of the invention may be practiced according to what is described, or yet differently, and also in conjunction with other present or future technologies. Other such embodiments include combinations and sub-combinations of features described herein, including for example, embodiments that are equivalent to the following: providing or applying a feature in a different order than in a described embodiment; extracting an individual feature from one embodiment and inserting such feature into another embodiment; removing one or more features from an embodiment; or both removing a feature from an embodiment and adding a feature extracted from another embodiment, while providing the features incorporated in such combinations and sub-combinations.
In general, the present disclosure reflects preferred embodiments of the invention. The attentive reader will note, however, that some aspects of the disclosed embodiments extend beyond the scope of the claims. To the respect that the disclosed embodiments indeed extend beyond the scope of the claims, the disclosed embodiments are to be considered supplementary background information and do not constitute definitions of the claimed invention.
In this document, the phrases “constructed to” and/or “configured to” denote one or more actual states of construction and/or configuration that is fundamentally tied to physical characteristics of the element or feature preceding these phrases and, as such, reach well beyond merely describing an intended use. Any such elements or features can be implemented in a number of ways, as will be apparent to a person skilled in the art after reviewing the present disclosure, beyond any examples shown in this document.
Any and all parent, grandparent, great-grandparent, etc. patent applications, whether mentioned in this document or in an Application Data Sheet (“ADS”) of this patent application, are hereby incorporated by reference herein as originally disclosed, including any priority claims made in those applications and any material incorporated by reference, to the extent such subject matter is not inconsistent herewith.
In this description a single reference numeral may be used consistently to denote a single item, aspect, component, or process. Moreover, a further effort may have been made in the drafting of this description to use similar though not identical reference numerals to denote other versions or embodiments of an item, aspect, component or process that are identical or at least similar or related. Where made, such a further effort was not required, but was nevertheless made gratuitously so as to accelerate comprehension by the reader. Even where made in this document, such a further effort might not have been made completely consistently for all of the versions or embodiments that are made possible by this description. Accordingly, the description controls in defining an item, aspect, component or process, rather than its reference numeral. Any similarity in reference numerals may be used to infer a similarity in the text, but not to confuse aspects where the text or other context indicates otherwise.
This disclosure, which may be referenced elsewhere as “3462”, is meant to be illustrative and not limiting on the scope of the following claims. The claims of this document define certain combinations and subcombinations of elements, features and steps or operations, which are regarded as novel and non-obvious. Additional claims for other such combinations and sub-combinations may be presented in this or a related document. These claims are intended to encompass within their scope all changes and modifications that are within the true spirit and scope of the subject matter described herein. The terms used herein, including in the claims, are generally intended as “open” terms. For example, the term “including” should be interpreted as “including but not limited to,” the term “having” should be interpreted as “having at least,” etc. If a specific number is ascribed to a claim recitation, this number is a minimum but not a maximum unless stated otherwise. For example, where a claim recites “a” component or “an” item, it means that it can have one or more of this component or item.
LUCAS, which stands for Lund University Cardiac Assist System, is a machine that provides automatic chest compressions to a patient. The machines prevent strain on first responders and keep their hands free to help more people. Each device costs roughly $16,000, which is a barrier for smaller fire departments.Does the LUCAS device work? ›
Increased ROSC rates in the ED
Implementation of the LUCAS device, a team-focused strategy and video-reviewed CPR intervention for cardiac arrest patients significantly improved return of spontaneous circulation rates, going from 26% to 41%, in the ED.
Two-person CPR for the adult victim will be 30 compressions to 2 breaths. Two-person CPR ratio for the child and infant will be 15 compressions to 2 breaths.How long does a LUCAS device last? ›
The device can run for as long as needed on a nominal patient chest when connected to the Power Supply. It is recommended to replace the battery every three years or after 200 uses of more than 10 minutes each time.What are 2 benefits of the Lucas system? ›
The LUCAS device improves CPR quality and increases chest compression fraction time—on-scene, during transport and throughout the entire resuscitation. “Patients treated with mechanical chest compressions received higher quality CPR than those treated with manual chest compressions.Is the LUCAS device better than CPR? ›
The LUCAS™ device does not fatigue or inadvertently interrupt compressions, and it provides a consistent depth and rate of chest compressions. Logistically, it frees up one provider to provide other care and it offers improved access to the patient. The patient can be safely moved and transported while undergoing CPR.Is Lucas better than manual CPR? ›
It was found that median compression rate in the LUCAS scenario (112 compressions/min.) was significantly less than that in the manual CPR scenario (125 compressions/min IQR = 102–128 and 102–126 respectively; p<0.002).What does 30 and 2 mean in CPR? ›
30:2 CPR consists of 3 cycles of standard CPR with each cycle consisting of 30 chest compressions with a pause for 2 ventilations at a compression:ventilation ratio of 30:2. CCC consists of a series of three cycles of continuous chest compressions without pauses for ventilation.What is the 30 2 rule in CPR? ›
Continue giving sets of 30 chest compressions and 2 breaths. Use an AED as soon as one is available! Minimize interruptions to chest compressions to less than 10 seconds.
One of the biggest changes in the guidelines – implemented in 2005 – was to move from 15 compressions/2 breaths (15:2) to 30:2. The intention was to increase the number of chest compressions delivered per minute and reduce interruptions in chest compressions.
The PedFACTs course also covers the “4Cs of Pediatric First Aid” help focus providers on the steps they need to take to safely manage emergencies: Check, Call, Care, and Complete.What are the 3 C's in CPR? ›
- Check for responsiveness - Shake the person and shout, “Are you OK?”
- Call - Direct someone to call 9-1-1 or make the call yourself if the person is unresponsive and struggling to breathe (gasping or snoring). ...
- Compress - Begin forceful chest compressions at a rate of 100 per minute.
A CPR certification is a credential that qualifies the holder to perform a life-saving procedure on someone who cannot breathe on their own due to a near-drowning incident, suffocation or a cardiac event. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation involves the use of rescue ventilation and chest compressions.What is the age limit for Lucas CPR? ›
The Lucas may be used in patients 12 years of age and older who have suffered cardiac arrest, where manual CPR would otherwise be used.What is the difference between Lucas 2 and Lucas 3? ›
The 3.0 version was launched in major markets around the world during 2016. Compared to LUCAS 2 this generation and version has improved features to faciliate maintenance and handling and allows for new insights through easy, wireless (Bluetooth) access to device data.What is the weight limit for Lucas 3? ›
What are the patient weight restrictions for use of the LUCAS device? There is no patient weight limit. The chest height can be between 6.7 to 11.9 inches with a maximum chest width of 17.7 inches.What does Lucas mean in CPR? ›
The LUCAS device (LUCAS 2, Jolife, Lund, Sweden) is a mechanical chest compression-decompression system which enabled automated and continuous closed chest compression, without unduly limiting other invasive procedures such as PCI [4,5,6,7,8,9].Who can use Lucas CPR machine? ›
"LUCAS Chest Compression System is to be used for performing external cardiac compressions on adult patients who have acute circulatory arrest defined as absence of spontaneous breathing and pulse, and loss of consciousness. LUCAS must only be used in cases where chest compressions are likely to help the patient.What size patient is a LUCAS device? ›
Patients eligible for treatment: Sternum height of 6.7 to 11.9 inches / 17 to 30.3 cm • Maximum chest width: 17.7 inches / 45 cm Using the LUCAS device is not restricted by patient weight.What is the new CPR machine called? ›
Automated CPR Machine: Lifeline ARM Automated Chest Compression (ACC) The Lifeline ARM Automated Chest Compression (ACC) automated CPR machine from Defibtech is designed to perform mechanical chest compressions when adequate manual cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is impossible.
CPR Level C
It is considered all Inclusive Approach. CPR Level C is often recommended to police, firefighters and lifeguards who may require comphrensive training for their work duties. CPR Level C includes the following courses: Standard First Aid and CPR Level C (Red cross or Heart and Stroke Foundation)
Defibrillation can be performed during LUCAS device operation. The device does not need to be stopped when delivering the shock. 3 Use the defibrillator, in manual or AED mode, according to the defibrillator manufacturer's instructions and agency protocols, and according to the recommendations below.Do you push hard or soft in CPR? ›
Keep your elbows straight and position your shoulders directly above your hands. Using your upper body weight, push straight down on the chest about 2 inches (5 centimeters), but not more than 2.4 inches (6 centimeters). Push hard at a rate of 100 to 120 compressions a minute.Is it better to do CPR breath or no? ›
Evidence for CPR Without Mouth-to-Mouth Resuscitation
However, research covering several thousand victims of sudden cardiac arrest now shows that chest compressions alone are actually more effective for adult victims than chest compressions plus rescue breathing—at least when performed by an untrained bystander.
According to Lucas, the oil stabilizer will not only prolong the life of an engine, but it will also provide you with approximately 50% more time between oil changes.Can I put Lucas in my car? ›
A: Yes, In addition to being great for your engine, you can also mix it 25% / 75% a manual transmission and 50% / 50% in the differential. Lucas Oil Stabilizer blends with any petroleum-based or synthetic oil, and is formulated for gasoline or diesel engines.Is CPR 30 and 2 better than continuous? ›
Continuous Compressions or 30:2? During cardiopulmonary resuscitation, when correctly done, a chest compression strategy of 30 compressions followed by 2 breaths (30:2) was associated with higher survival than continuous chest compressions (CCC).How many cycles of CPR in 1 minute? ›
Keeping your hands on their chest, release the compression and allow their chest to return to its original position. Repeat these compressions at a rate of 100 to 120 times a minute until an ambulance arrives or for as long as you can.How many rounds of CPR is 2 minutes? ›
Aim for 5 sets of 30:2 in about 2 minutes (if only doing compressions about 100 – 120 compressions per minute). Keep going with 30 compressions then 2 breaths until: the person recovers — they start moving, breathing normally, coughing or talking — then put them in the recovery position; or.What if there is no pulse after 4 minutes of rescue breathing? ›
If there is no pulse, continue performing 30 compressions/2 breaths, checking for pulse after every 4 cycles until help arrives. Airway: tilt the head back and lift the neck to clear the airway.
Do not worry about pushing too hard – good CPR requires you to push hard and fast. Once you have completed 30 compressions (pushes) on the chest, breathe into the child's mouth 2 times. Continue with the cycle of 30 chest compressions and 2 breaths until the ambulance arrives.What are the 5 cycles of CPR? ›
- How to Perform Life-Saving CPR (Rescue Breathing & Chest Compressions) on Adults, Children, and Infants. ...
- Step 1: Check for Breathing. ...
- Step 2: Call 911. ...
- Step 3: Adjust your Body to Perform Chest Compressions. ...
- Step 4: Perform Chest Compressions. ...
- Step 5: Don't Stop. ...
- Step 1: Check for Breathing.
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) comprises of cycles of chest compressions and rescue breaths in a ratio of 30 chest compressions to 2 rescue breaths (30:2).What are the rules for 2 person CPR? ›
Determine unresponsiveness. Responder 1: open Airway and check Breathing and Circulation for a maximum of 5 to 10 seconds. Responder 2: maintain airway, then position and seal mask. Responder 1: give 2 ventilations (each lasting 1 second) until chest starts to rise.Why did CPR change from ABC to CAB? ›
By changing the sequence to C-A-B, chest compressions will be initiated sooner and ventilation only minimally delayed until completion of the first cycle of chest compressions (30 compressions should be accomplished in approximately 18 seconds).What is the ABCD rule in CPR? ›
Use the Airway, Breathing, Circulation, Disability, Exposure (ABCDE) approach to assess and treat the patient. Do a complete initial assessment and re-assess regularly. Treat life-threatening problems before moving to the next part of assessment.What is the difference between CPR and CPR C? ›
A – CPR Sequences on Adults. C – CPR Sequences on Adults, Children and Babies. BLS – Basic Life Support (NEW – Replaced CPR/AED Level HCP – additional skills for Health Care Providers/Professionals that work in a facility or a group response setting).
CPR B: You learn all the above plus how to modify your technique if the victim is a child. CPR C: Is the most complete version that most people need. You learn what to do for adults, children, & infants when they are chocking or just unconscious and non-breathing.Is CPR a skill or certification? ›
CPR is a certification people earn after undergoing a certification course that includes formal CPR training from a professional and a written exam.Is it illegal to not perform CPR if you are certified? ›
If Certified in CPR, You Are Required to Help in an Emergency: FALSE. There are a few states that issue fines to bystanders for not helping in an emergency, but there are no laws that would force a person to give CPR to person in need.
CPR certification tests your ability to recognize a cardiac event and administer CPR chest compression and artificial ventilation. CPR certification is only taught in conjunction with AED. AED certification tests your knowledge of administering an electric shock to the heart using AED equipment.What is the proper placement of LUCAS device? ›
The straps are only for attaching the LUCAS device to the patient. Place the lower edge of the Suction Cup immediately above the end of the sternum, as indicated in the figure. The Suction Cup should be centred over the chest. Pull the release rings to remove the Upper Part from the Back Plate.What age is LUCAS device for? ›
The Lucas 2 Device is designed to provide effective and consistent automated external chest compressions to patients over the age of 12 suffering from non traumatic cardiac arrest.When should the LUCAS device be used? ›
"LUCAS Chest Compression System is to be used for performing external cardiac compressions on adult patients who have acute circulatory arrest defined as absence of spontaneous breathing and pulse, and loss of consciousness. LUCAS must only be used in cases where chest compressions are likely to help the patient.Is the LUCAS device safe? ›
Proven safe and effective in highest level of evidence
Another randomized, controlled trial on 259 cardiac arrest patients has shown: LUCAS did not cause more injuries than manual CPR.
The LUCAS device extends the reach of care by maintaining chest compressions during transport to advanced lifesaving therapies, including ECMO or PCI in the cath lab. It can improve provider safety, avoiding fatigue over long durations and reducing transport risks by allowing caregivers to sit belted.Do hospitals use Lucas? ›
The LUCAS device can be used both in and out of the hospital setting.How deep is LUCAS device? ›
The current piston-based mechanical device LUCAS 2™ is programmed to deliver a compression depth of 5 cm.What is a Lucas 3 device? ›
The LUCAS device provides high-quality chest compressions for patients in cardiac arrest.What is the difference between Lucas 2 and Lucas 3 device? ›
The 3.0 version was launched in major markets around the world during 2016. Compared to LUCAS 2 this generation and version has improved features to faciliate maintenance and handling and allows for new insights through easy, wireless (Bluetooth) access to device data.
The Lucas may be used in patients who have suffered non-traumatic cardiac arrest, where manual CPR would otherwise be used. Patients suffering traumatic cardiac arrest or patients with obvious signs of traumatic injury.What is a patient too small for LUCAS device? ›
Too small patient: If you cannot enter the PAUSE mode or ACTIVE mode when the pressure pad touches the patient's chest and LUCAS alarms with 3 fast signals. If it is not possible to position LUCAS safely or correctly on the patient's chest.Can you shock while using Lucas? ›
Defibrillation can be performed during LUCAS device operation. The device does not need to be stopped when delivering the shock. 3 Use the defibrillator, in manual or AED mode, according to the defibrillator manufacturer's instructions and agency protocols, and according to the recommendations below.